Their applications, physics, and math. -- Peter Ceperley
There are all sorts of resonances around us, in the world, in our culture, and in our technology. A tidal resonance causes the 55 foot tides in the Bay of Fundy. Mechanical and acoustical resonances and their control are at the center of practically every musical instrument that ever existed. Even our voices and speech are based on controlling the resonances in our throat and mouth. Technology is also a heavy user of resonance. All clocks, radios, televisions, and gps navigating systems use electronic resonators at their very core. Doctors use magnetic resonance imaging or MRI to sense the resonances in atomic nuclei to map the insides of their patients. In spite of the great diversity of resonators, they all share many common properties. In this blog, we will delve into their various aspects. It is hoped that this will serve both the students and professionals who would like to understand more about resonators. I hope all will enjoy the animations.
12. Transforming electromagnetic fields and Maxwell's equations
Relativity has its roots in a problem associated with Maxwell's electromagnetic theory: that there was no obvious way to address the question of reference frames in Maxwell's equations. It was further prompted by the Michelson-Morley experiment which indicated that the speed of light as measured is independent of the velocity of the reference frame from which it is measured.
"Relativity" was created to make a world in which all objects, when moving at very great velocities, would behave in a manner consistent with their internal structures being determined by Maxwell's equations and the constant speed of light. Part of this world was a set of "Lorentz" transforms which allowed us to convert observations taken in one reference frame into observations in another reference frame.
Lorentz transforms have the property that they preserve the form of the operators in both Maxwell's equations and the electromagnetic wave equations. At the same time, this does not mean that the electromagetic variables, the electric and magnetic fields, and the charge and current densities, stay the same when changing reference frames. In fact, we shall find, in the next few chapters, that all these variables do change.
We shall find, that when we change reference frames a pure electric field becomes a mix of electric and magnetic fields. The same is true of a pure magnetic field. Also a pure charge density becomes a mix of charge density and current density. A pure current density becomes a mix of current and charge density.
In a sense, it is obvious. After all in a reference frame where a charge is stationary, it is a pure charge (not a current) and it creates a pure electric field. However, when we change reference frames so that the charge appears to be moving, we have a moving charge which is not only a charge, but also is a moving charge, i.e. an electrical current. In this case we would expect not only an electric field (from the charge) but also a magnetic field (from the electrical current). The pure electric field is changed into a mix of electric field plus magnetic field with the addition of motion.
We shall derive the equations for these transformations. In the final four chapters we shall come full circle and transform not only the operator part of Maxwell's equations, but also the electric and magnetic fields and also the current and charge densities. With quite a lot of brute force work, we shall show that the set of equations in fact do transform into an identical looking set of Maxwell's equations in the new reference frame.
Waves, Berkeley Physics Course - vol. 3, Frank S. Crawford, Jr. McGraw-Hill 1965. This book is suitable for an add-on to an introductory course on college or university physics. It discusses all sorts of aspects of waves and has a multitude of home experiments. One could probably make a great science fair project from one of them. As to its math level, it mostly uses algebra, with some calculus in the mix.
Physics of waves, by Elmore and Heald, originally published by McGraw-Hill in 1969, but currently published by Dover. This book covers many different wave systems, such as waves on a string, on a membrane, in solids, in fluids, on a liquid surface, and electromagnetic waves. It also covers the many aspects of waves. It has an excellent chapter on diffraction.
The Feynman lectures on physics, Feynman, Leighton, and Sands, Addison-Wesley 1963. Three volumes. These cover many aspects of physics. They are perhaps best suited for someone who has made it through an introductory sequence in college or university physics, and wants to read about the subject from a more sophisticated point of view. They are not particularly math intensive, more just into discussing concepts with some math as required. These are books you read to understand a physicist's mind. Perhaps 10% to 20% of the chapters are about waves and resonances.
Electromagnetic books that I use:
Engineering Electromagnetics, Hayt (with Buck on more recent editions), McGraw-Hill. An easy to read, compact junior-level text for electrical engineering students.
Fields and waves in communication electronics, Ramo, Whinnery, Van Duzer, Wiley. A upper level/graduate level text for electrical engineering student. Covers practically every aspect of applied electromagnetic fields in some depth. Is not a book to sit down and read for philosophy, but rather to look up the rational behind certain devices or design methods.